The History of The Romanian Court of Accounts
The Court of Accounts was established by the Law of January 24th 1864
Five years after the Union of the Romanian Principalities, in 1859, “ by wanting to give a more guarantee to the Country about Our desire, that the use of public money be subject to control, as seriously as it is free of any suspicion of influence from to the agents in charge of the budget administration”, the ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza promulgates the Law for the establishment of The Court of Accounts.
The Law was published, on the same day, on January 24th , in the Official Gazette no. 18 and bears the signature of the Minister Secretary of State / President of the Council of Ministers, Mihail Kogălniceanu. As nowadays, the mission of the institution concerned the control over the way of establishing, administration and use of the financial resources of the state and its administrative-territorial units.
Art. 116 of the Constitution from 1866 (published in the Official Bulletin no. 142 of July 13th 1866) provides that “there is a sole Court of Accounts for the whole Romania”, and art. 114 states that “the final settlement of the accounts must be presented to the Assembly no later than two years after the end of each financial year”
The headquarter of the Court of Accounts was inaugurated in May 1899, in the presence of King Carol I (photo) and Prince Ferdinand, together with the Minister of Finance, George Manu, and important state dignitaries. The ceremony began with a te deum officiated by Archimandrite Niphon, vicar of the Metropolitanate. On this festive occasion, the acting president of the Court of Accounts, George Lahovari, was decorated with the The Great Cross of the Romanian Crown Order. Thus, after 35 years from its establishment, from 1864 until 1899, for the first time the Court of Accounts has its own headquarter.
Art.116 of the Constitution from 1923 (published in the Official Gazette no. 282 of March 29, 1923) provides that the preventive and management control of all state revenues and expenditures will be conducted by the Court of Accounts, which presents each year to the Assembly of Deputies the report of the past budget, highlighting the irregularities made by ministers in budget implementation. According to the 1929 Law, the Court of Accounts is an independent institution, has the same rank as the High Court of Cassation and enjoys the same rights. Through this new regulation, the Court of Accounts maintains both its control and judicial attributions.
1938 – 1948
In the historical context of 1938-1948 - the territorial losses, the war, the Soviet occupation, as well as the establishment of the communist regime - there were major changes that also affected the activity of the Court of Accounts. Thus, by the decree of Grand Assembly of Romanian People's Republic, dated December 1st 1948, Court of Accounts was abolished. The financial control function was taken over by the Ministry of Finance, through the special internal control departments set up within the ministries, state enterprises, local administrations and public institutions, and the Carol Davila Nephrology Hospital was moved in the building where the Court of Accounts used to be.
By Law no. 2 from March 28th 1973, published in the Official Gazette no. 44 from March 30th 1973, The Superior Court of Financial Control was established, operating under the State Council. The law was amended by Decrees No. 150 from June 19th 1974 and No. 36 from February 21st 1981. The Court was empowered to exercise financial and jurisdictional control. The law included a number of provisions specific to the totalitarian state, such as: The Superior Court of Financial Control seeks to comply with the decisions of the Party and of the State in the financial field and to defend socialist property.
The collapse of the communist regime in Romania, following the Revolution of December 1989, led to the abolition of the Superior Court of Financial Control, by Decree no. 94 / 07 of February 1990, issued by the Council of the National Salvation Front. Thus, its attributions were taken over, according to art. 1 of the respective decree, by the Prime Minister’s Economic-Financial Control Corps from the Romanian Government, and later by the General Directorate of State Financial Control from Ministry of Finance.
The Romanian Constitution restores the Court of Accounts where it belongs, in the group of essential institutions of a democratic state. Court of Accounts conducts the control over the establishment, management and use of state and public sector financial resources.
The General Directorate of State Financial Control form Ministry of Finances ceases its activity, and The Romanian Parliament emphasizes the provisions of the constitution text by adopting Law no. 94/1992 on the organization and functioning of the Romanian Court of Accounts
The Romanian Court of Accounts resumed its activity on March 1st 1993. The institution initially operates in the Parliament Palace building. In July of the same year, it received the building from Lev Tolstoi Street, no. 22-24, Bucharest, which becomes the headquarters of the Court.
Lev Nicolaevici Tolstoi Street, no.22-24, District 1, Bucharest
Phone: +4 021 3078731
Monday – Friday, 8:00 am – 6:00 pm